After Shanghai: what are the next steps.

Ethereum’s next big steps already have a name. They are called
Cancún and Deneb. These expected new updates come just after a
Shanghai update. They must introduce Danksharding, which is a
innovation. What does all this mean?

Cancun is a Mexican city as you know. And this is the city of America
Latin which hosted the third edition of the Devcon (it is a conference that
Ethereum organizes for developers, thinkers and even investors
in the area). The Deneb is borrowed from the name of the brightest star in the
pleiad of the swan that can be easily recognized in summer in the hemisphere
north. Cancun is the name given to the software update for the
execution layer for the upcoming hard fork. While the Deneb, for its part, carried
on the consensus layer.

The hard fork is a major protocol upgrade that forces all
users to upgrade to new software if they wish to continue using the
same software. The consensus layer is the territory on which the
node operators who validate transactions. Network nodes must
agree on the current state of the system. And this is done through mechanism
of consensus. So they become "Dencun" when both updates are
grouped under this contraction. And so their specialities are included in a
Ethereum evolution project known as Ethereum improvement
proposal number 4844 (EIP-4844).

The center of this hard fork is the implementation of Dunksharding on Ethereum. 
There implementation is in the form of proto-Danksharding. Either way is a
innovation that will allow a serious reduction in costs on layers 2, which are
secondary networks of blockchains capable of supporting more
transactions. With danksharding, Etherem shows an ambition to offer this
ecosystem a strike force of more than 100,000 transactions per second and at
lower cost. And what could this famous proto-danksharding be?

Originally it was the scientific work of two computer scientists. And they
are called Dankrad Feist and Diederik Loerakker. It is these two researchers who
invented proto-darksharding. Proto-danksharding is therefore a technology
sharding designed for the EIP-4844. He has not yet finished his climb of so many
more than its final version is not yet on the agenda. We still have
several years to wait to reach its final version. It still takes time
to succeed completely, which means even more performance in terms of
transaction. But for now Dencun update will start this new era
which is coming.

This technology has a purpose. It is to make transactions fluid, by making them
even cheaper and faster. This is why everything is played on networks
secondaries of blockchains capable of supporting more transactions. And
as we have seen, this is called layers 2. This solution is therefore
centered on the layers 2 of ethereum or rather in the way in which they manage to
out of layer 1. If we consider as an example networks like
Arbitrum, Optimism, or ZKSync. All send information to Ethereum at
regular interval to maintain their safety. They register and are stored there.

But then their smart contracts consume even more resources and worse
still they take up space. As this data is permanently stored there,
the longer they stay there, the more the spaces are likely to shrink. 
The solution so proto-Danksharding is clearing spaces on Ethereum.
She leaves from observation that it is not necessary to store these different states indefinitely, and that so it only takes 1 to 3 months maximum of history on 
layer 1 to guarantee that the layers 2 respect the consensus. 
To achieve this, the improvement project(EIP-4844) introduced the notion of "data blobs", 
which range from removed regularly to avoid overloading nodes in the long run.

Data is automatically deleted from the node every 1-3 months. This
are consensual customer attestations that demonstrate that there was
enough opportunities for validators to check the data. Data
actual data may be stored off-chain by operators, users or others. 
Many are those who believe that the commissioning of the EIP-4844 can be
do this fall. But above all no excitement, we can expect even more
a long time.